Frequently Asked Questions

The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) below answer some of the most commonly asked questions patients have. Please check this section if you have questions, and click on the links below to learn more about IBgard.®

Cash B, Sullivan S, Barghout V. Total costs of IBS: employer and managed care perspective. Am J Manag Care. 2005;11(1 Suppl):S7-16. doi:2834 [pii].

2Hungin APS, Chang L, Locke GR, Dennis EH, Barghout V. Irritable bowel syndrome in the United States: Prevalence, symptom patterns and impact. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21(11):1365-1375. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02463.x.

3  Drossman DA, Morris CB, Schneck S, et al. International Survey of Patients with IBS: Symptom Features and their Severity, Health Status, Treatments, and Risk Taking to Achieve Clinical Benefit. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;43(6):541-550. doi:10.1097/MCG.0b013e318189a7f9.INTERNATIONAL.

Rome IV: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Disorders of Gut-Brain Interaction, Fourth Edition.; 2016.

Holtmann GJ, Ford AC, Talley NJ. Pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;1(2):133-146. doi:10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30023-1.

González-Castro AM, Martínez C, Salvo-Romero E, et al. Mucosal pathobiology and molecular signature of epithelial barrier dysfunction in the small intestine in Irritable Bowel Syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;32:53-63. doi:10.1111/jgh.13417.

7  Dr. Ananya Mandal MD. What Does the Small Intestine Do? https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-Does-the-Small-Intestine-Do.aspx.

Ford AC, Moayyedi P, Lacy BE, et al. American College of Gastroenterology Monograph on the Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2018:S2-S26. doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.187.

Juergens U, Stober M, Vetter H. The anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitr

10 Hawthorn M, Ferrante J, Luchowski E, Rutledge A, Wei X, Triggle D. The actions of peppermint oil and menthol on calcium channel dependenf processes in in testinal, neuronal and cardiac preparations. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1988;2:101-118.

11 Liu B, Fan L, Balakrishna S, Sui A, Moris JB, Jordt S-E. TRPM8 is the Principal Mediator of Menthol-induced Analgesia of Acute and Inflammatory Pain. Pain. 2013;154(10):2169-2177. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2013.06.043.TRPM8.

12 Harries N, James KC, Pugh WK. Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharm Ther. 1977;2(3):171-177.

13  İşcan G, Ki̇ri̇mer N, Kürkcüoǧlu M, Hüsnü Can Başer, Demi̇rci̇ F. Antimicrobial Screening of Mentha piperita Essential Oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(14):3943-3946. doi:10.1021/jf011476k.

14  Jeyakumar E, Lawrence R, Pal T. Comparative evaluation in the efficacy of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil with standards antibiotics against selected bacterial pathogens. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1(SUPPL. 2). doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60165-2.

15 Yu Q, Li P, Yang Q. Improving the absorption of earthworm fibrinolytic enzymes with mucosal enhancers. Pharm Biol. 2010;48(7):816-821. doi:10.3109/13880200903283681.

16 Goerg KJ, Spilker T. Effect of peppermint oil and caraway oil on gastrointestinal motility in healthy volunteers: A pharmacodynamic study using simultaneous determination of gastric and gall-bladder emptying and orocaecal transit time. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2003.01421.x.

17  Cash BD, Epstein MS, Shah SM. A Novel Delivery System of Peppermint Oil Is an Effective Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms. Dig Dis Sci. 2016;61(2):560-571. doi:10.1007/s10620-015-3858-7.

18 Kearns GL, Chumpitazi BP, Abdel-Rahman SM, Garg U, Shulman RJ. Systemic exposure to menthol following administration of peppermint oil to paediatric patients. BMJ Open. 2015;5(8):e008375. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008375.

19 Quigley E, Fried M, Gwee K-A, et al. Irritable Bowel Syndrome : A Global Perspective.; 2015. doi:10.1016/j.ajg.2009.12.016.

20 Cash B, Epstein M, Shah S. In Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Mixed (IBS-M), a Novel Peppermint Oil Formulation Designed for Site Specific Targeting (PO-SST) in the Small Intestine Improves the 8 Symptoms that Comprise the Total IBS Symptoms Score (TISS). In: Digestive Disease Week. Chicago, IL; 2017.

21  Swift D, Bilal M. IBS Purgatory: Mixed Irritable Bowel Syndrome. AGA Read Room. 2016.

22 Canavan C, West J, Card T. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Epidemiol. 2014;6(1):71-80. doi:10.2147/CLEP.S40245.

23 Hillilä MT, Siivola MT, Färkkilä MA. Comorbidity and use of health-care services among irritable bowel syndrome sufferers. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;42(7):799-806.

24  Talley NJ, Dennis EH, Schettler-Duncan VA, Lacy BE, Olden KW, Crowell MD. Overlapping upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients with constipation or diarrhea. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98(11):2454.

25Stanghellini V, Tosetti C, Barbara G, et al. Dyspeptic symptoms and gastric emptying in the irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(11):2738.

26Ford AC, Talley NJ, Spiegel BMR, et al. Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008;337(a2313):1-11. doi:10.1136/bmj.a2313.

27 De Roest RH, Dobbs BR, Chapman BA, et al. The low FODMAP diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective study. Int J Clin Pract. 2013;67(9):895-903. doi:10.1111/ijcp.12128.

28Halmos EP, Christophersen CT, Bird AR, Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR, Muir JG. Diets that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment. Gut. 2015;64(1):93-100. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307264.

29 Böhn L, Störsrud S, Liljebo T, et al. Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome as Well as Traditional Dietary Advice: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Gastroenterology. 2015;149(6):1399-1407. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2015.07.054.

30Niaz SK, Sandrasegaran K, Renny FH, Jones BJ. Postinfective diarrhoea and bile acid malabsorption. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1997;31(1):53-56.

31 Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR. Fructose Malabsorption and Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Guidelines for Effective Dietary Management. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(10):1631-1639. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.07.010.

32 Drossman DA. Functional gastrointestinal disorders: History, pathophysiology, clinical features, and Rome IV. Gastroenterology. 2016;150(6):1262-1279e2. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.032.

33 Martínez C, González-Castro A, Vicario M, Santos J. Cellular and molecular basis of intestinal barrier dysfunction in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut Liver. 2012;6(3):305-315. doi:10.5009/gnl.2012.6.3.305.

34 Blumenthal M, Busse W, Goldberg A, et al. Peppermint oil - Menthae piperitae aetheroleum. In: The Complete German Commision E Monogrpahs - Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. ; 1998:181.

35  Locke T. IBS Linked to Low Vitamin D. https://www.webmd.com/ibs/news/20151222/ibs-low-vitamin-d. Published 2015.

36Tazzyman S, Richards N, Trueman AR, et al. Vitamin D associates with improved quality of life in participants with irritable bowel syndrome: outcomes from a pilot trial. BMJ open Gastroenterol. 2015;2:1-8. doi:10.1136/bmjgast-2015-000052.

37 Levings J. The New Food Label: What RDs Need to Know. https://www.todaysdietitian.com/enewsletter/enews_0516_03.shtml.

38Abbasnezhad A, Amani R, Hajiani E, et al. Effect of vitamin D on gastrointestinal symptoms and health-related quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial Neurogastroenterology & Motility. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;28:1533-1544. doi:10.1111/nmo.12851.

39 Cash BD, Epstein MS, Shah SM. Patient satisfaction with IBS symptom relief using a novel peppermint oil delivery system in a randomized clinical trial and in the general population. Int J Dig Dis. 2016;2(2):1-5.

40 QuintilesIMS. Alpha ImpactRx ProVoice Survey - Among Primary Care Physicians with a Certification in Sleep Disorders Who Recommended a Brand of Modified Release Melatonin.; 2017.

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