Frequently Asked Questions

The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) below answer some of the most commonly asked questions patients have. Please check this section if you have questions, and click on the links below to learn more about IBgard.®

1 Hungin, A. P S, L. Chang, G. R. Locke, E. H. Dennis, and V. Barghout. 2005. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 21 (11): 1365–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02463.x.

2 Cash, Brooks, Sean Sullivan, and Victoria Barghout. 2005. The American Journal of Managed Care 11 (1 Suppl): S7-16. doi:2834 [pii].

3 Drossman et al. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2009:43(6) 541-550.

4 Rome IV: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Disorders of Gut-Brain Interaction, Fourth Edition. 2016.

5 González-Castro, Ana M, Cristina Martínez, Eloísa Salvo-Romero, Marina Fortea, Cristina Pardo-Camacho, Teresa Pérez-Berezo, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Javier Santos, and María Vicario. 2016. “Mucosal Pathobiology and Molecular Signature of Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in the Small Intestine in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 53–63. doi:10.1111/jgh.13417.

6 Hawrelak, J.A. et al,. Alternative Medicine Review Vol 14, #4 2009, pg. 380-384.

7 Juergens, UR, M Stober, and H Vetter. 1998. European Journal of Medical Research 3 (12): 539–45.

8  Hawthron M et al (1988): Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2(2):101-18.

9 Liu, Boyia; Fan, Lua; Balakrishna, Shrilathaa; Sui, Aiweia; Morris, John B.b; Jordt, Sven‐Erica,* Pain: October 2013 - Volume 154 - Issue 10 - p 2169–2177. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.06.043.

10 Qinghua Yu, Pengcheng Li & Qian Yang (2010), Pharmaceutical Biology, 48:7, 816-821, DOI: 10.3109/13880200903283681.

11 Camilleri, Michael, and Donald E. Williams. 2000. PharmacoEconomics 17 (4): 331–38. doi:10.2165/00019053-200017040-00003.

12 Cash, Brooks, Michael Epstein, and Syed Shah. 2017. “In Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Mixed (IBS-M), a Novel Peppermint Oil Formulation Designed for Site Specific Targeting (PO-SST) in the Small Intestine Improves the 8 Symptoms That Comprise the Total IBS Symptoms Score (TISS).” In Digestive Disease Week. Chicago, IL.

13 Goerg, K.J. et al., Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17:445-451.

14 IBSREST™, a randomized placebo-controlled study of IBgard. Peer-reviewed and published in Dig. Dis. and Sci. 2016.

15 Kearns, G. L., Chumpitazi, B. P., Abdel-Rahman, S. M., Garg, U. & Shulman, R. J. BMJ Open 5, e008375 (2015).

16 Quigley, Eamonn, Michael Fried, Kok-Ann Gwee, Igor Khalif, Pali Hungin, Greger Lindberg, Zaighman Abbas, et al. 2015. World Gastroenterology Organisation Global Guideline. doi:10.1016/j.ajg.2009.12.016.

17 Cash, Brooks D., Michael S. Epstein, and Syed M. Shah. 2016. “A Novel Delivery System of Peppermint Oil Is an Effective Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms.” Digestive Diseases and Sciences 61 (2). Springer US: 560–71. doi:10.1007/s10620-015-3858-7.

18 Swift, Diana, and M Bilal. 2016. AGA Reading Room.

19 Ford, A.C., et al. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Jul;40(1):3-15. doi: 10.1111/apt.12794.

20Kassinen A, Krogius-Kurikka L, Makivuokko H, et al., The fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs significantly from that of healthy subject. Gastroenterology 2007; 133:24-33.

21 Annahazi A, Ferrier L, Bezirard V, et al. Luminal cysteine-proteases degrade colonic tight junction structure and are responsible for andominal pain in constipation-predominant IBS. Am J Gastroenterol2013; 108:1322-31.

22 Lee H, Park JH, Park DI, et al. Mucosal mast cell count is associated with intestinal permeability in patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013; 19:244-50.

23 Matricon J, Meleine M, Gelot A, et al. Review article: associations between immune activation, intestinal permeability and the irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012; 36:1009-31.

24 Vanheel H, Vicario M, Vanuytsel T, et al. Impaired duodenal mucosal integrity and low-grade inflammation in functional dyspepsia. Gut 63 2014: 262-271; doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303857.

25 Martinez C, Lobo B, Pigrau M, et al. Diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: an organic disorder with structural abnormalities in the jejunal epithelial barrier. Gut 2012; 62:1160-8.

26 Hawrelak, J.A. et al,. Alternative Medicine Review Vol 14, #4 2009, pg. 380-384.

27 Ragnarsson, Gudmundur, and Göran Bodemar. 1998. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepathology 10 (5): 415–21.

28 Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka, Louise Maranda, and Ninfa Candela. 2017. Plos One 12 (2): e0172183. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172183.

29 Khayyat, Yasir, and Suzan Attar. 2015. Oman Medical Journal 30 (2): 115–18. doi:10.5001/omj.2015.25.

30 Tazzyman, S., Richards, N., Trueman, A. R., Evans, A. L., Grant, V. A., Garaiova, I., Plummer, S. F., Williams, E. A., Corfe, B. M. (2015). BMJ Open Gastroenterology, 2, 1–8.

31 Levings, Jessica

32 Saltzman, John R, and Robert M Russell. 1994. Comprehensive Therapy 20 (9): 523–30.

33 Singh, Virmeet V, and Phillip P Toskes. 2003. Current Gastroenterology Reports 5 (5): 365–72.,+.

34 Niaz, S K, K Sandrasegaran, F H Renny, and B J Jones. 1997. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London 31 (1): 53–56.

35 Shepherd, Susan J., and Peter R. Gibson. 2006. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106 (10): 1631–39. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.07.010.

36 Giannella, R A, W R Rout, and P P Toskes. 1974. Gastroenterology 67 (5): 965–74.

37 Yap, S H, J C M Hafkenscheid, J H M Tongeren, and J M F Trijbels. 1974. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 4 (4). Wiley Online Library: 279–84.

38 King, Charles E, and Phillip P Toskes. 1981. Gastroenterology 80 (3). Elsevier: 504–9.

39 Maudgal, D P, L T Ang, and J D Maxwell. 1983. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 37 (1): 37–41.

40 Dr. Ananya Mandal, supra fn. 79.

41 Kamath, P.S. et al., abnormal gallbladder motility in irritable bowel syndrome: evidence for target-organ defect. Am J Physiol 260:G815-G819, 1991.

42 Zong, L. et al., Preliminary experimental research on the mechanism of liver  bile secretion stimulated by peppermint oil. J Dig Dis. 2011 Aug: 12(4):295-301.

43 Balakrishnan, A., Therapeutic uses of peppermint—A review. J Pharm Sci & Res. Vol. 7(7), 2015, 474-476.

44 Goerg, K. J., and Th Spilker. 2003. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2003.01421.x.

45 Cash, Brooks, Michael Epstein, and Syed Shah. 2017. “In Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Mixed (IBS-M), a Novel Peppermint Oil Formulation Designed for Site Specific Targeting (PO-SST) in the Small Intestine Improves the 8 Symptoms That Comprise the Total IBS Symptoms Score (TISS).” In Digestive Disease Week. Chicago, IL.



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